By: Jon Jablon, Esq. Business is complicated, and a recent consulting inquiry from a client recently reminded me just how complicated it can be, especially when health plans are involved. In the course of a given health plan’s lifespan, there is the potential for numerous different things to happen, and one such possibility is called a “spinoff”, which is the term used when one benefit plan is split into more than one benefit plan. When a health plan “spins off” into two health plans, neither plan is considered an “original” or “existing” plan, but each plan effectively becomes a brand new plan. Effecting a spinoff can be beneficial if an employer wants to treat classes of employees differently, which often becomes relevant as the employer expands its business, enters new sectors or new industries, widens its employee base, or otherwise changes its needs or mindset. If one section of a company grows much faster than another, for instance, it could be a good idea to separate the two into different companies, and different corporate structures could be used for different purposes and to achieve different results. A health plan being “spun off” into two (or more) plans can help insulate the assets of one plan from the other, which can be useful for stop-loss purposes (for instance to have different plans underwritten differently) or for funding purposes. Since health plans have assets, in the form of money paid in by employees and the plan sponsor and paid out in benefits, there must be a way to allocate those plan assets accordingly. It may be intuitive to think “well, if individuals paid into Plan A while they were members of Plan A, then that money belongs to Plan A, and the new Plan B will start fresh”, that is not the approach the regulators have taken. If some employees moved from Plan A to the brand new Plan B but assets did not get transferred from the old plan to the new plan, then the new plan would have no assets, and could not pay claims! To account for this, the applicable regulations tend to require the plans to allocate Plan A’s assets to Plan B based proportionately upon the plan assets attributable to their membership. If you think that sounds complicated, don’t forget that Plan A’s pool of assets is far from static; Plan A constantly gains and spends money, and attributing every dollar to an individual can be extremely complex (and it can even change day-to-day). In classic DOL and IRS fashion, plans are given the instruction to make “reasonable actuarial assumptions” to calculate these things – which does not really help explain much at all. It’s the same as when the regulators tell health plans to use a “good faith, reasonable interpretation” of the guidance they publish; in a way, it allows plans to have a safety net as long as they exercised good faith, but I for one would much rather have some actual guidance. Maybe even a calculator with specific fields, like for Minimum Value calculations! Employers sometimes view health plans as a handicap to achieving more efficient corporate structures, or they worry that their health plans will suffer as a result of certain factors that are apparently beyond their control. This “spinoff” is one example of a tool that is within an employer’s control; in fact, employers are given a very wide latitude to structure their health plan (or plans) as they see fit, and with a little creativity and a lot of math, that latitude can be used to an employer’s advantage.